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QuickNotes For Future Research

Zero Handoff?

    • FluidMesh
    • Rajant
  • mail: [pfSense] Access Point Recommendations?

Testing Suites

  • IxChariot

Access Points and Roaming

  • Vendors
    • Meraki
    • Meru Networks
    • Cisco
      • Has NAC
    • Motorola
    • Ubiquiti
      • No NAC
    • Aerohive
    • Ruckus!
  • Decisions:

I do wireless engineering for my job and I have replaced and installed both Cisco and Ubiquiti. I have installed HP, Aruba, Xirrus, Bluesocket, Sonicwall, Motorola and almost every version of SOHO, SMB. It mostly comes down to what you want to do on the network and what type of clients you want to use.

Aruba is almost overkill for the SMB market unless you go with the IAPs. Same for Motorola (I forget what they call it). Expensive maintenance fees. Awesome support.

Cisco, overpriced and out of tune with the actual market. Solid performance. If you really want Cisco invite some of the other big wireless vendors and grind them down on price by comparing. Awesome support community and great documentation. Hellish support and maintenance fees.

HP, okay as long as it is not too complex. Their interface needs some work before it easy to navigate and understand. Not bad on maintenance support (lifetime or 5 year 8x5 I think).

Bluesocket, good interface, good performance, free virtual appliance, inexpensive licensing. No FIPs compliance and missing DFS channel support in 5Ghz.

Xirrus, my new favorite, has some great deals and awesome performance especially in ultra dense deployments. Easy to understand GUI, almost as good as Meraki. Not bad maintenance fees.

Meraki, awesome GUI, good performance. Expensive on the maintenance. Too bad Cisco bought them.

My only caveat with Ubiquiti is that I have seen some fake APs on the market that had a lot of issues that you can't get support on. Just make sure of your supplier.

So, the big companies usually have a lot of cool features to help if you have a difficult wireless deployment. They usually add strong support and documentation. Sometimes at a hefty price.

Smaller companies are pretty good but if you run into technical issues it can be a mixed bag for support. We are replacing Ubiquiti and other smaller vendors with more enterprise products as companies grow.

Roaming Standards

  • IEEE 802.11F scrapped
  • 802.11r
  • 802.11k
  • OpenWRT and DDWRT
    • Some WING something?
    • Hostapd is supposed to have some of these....but not fully implemented?
  • Most proprietary solutions require hardware controllers cisco, etc
  • UBIQUITI - Zero Handoff Roaming
    • Currently available in the beta version of the UniFi Controller v3.
    • Not currently supported by the UAP-AC or UAP-AC Outdoor.


Looks like they all (verify)support/have: 4 SSID's, come with poe injectors, (CE, FCC, IC) mounting, 802.1 Q, per user rate limiting, guest traffic isolation (layer 3?), WMM(Voice, video, best effort, background)

  • Indoor Models:
    • UniFi AP-AC (UAP-AC)
      • 122m - 400ft
      • 802.11 a/b/g/n/ac
      • 1300 Mbps (5ghz), PoE+ 802.3at (standard poe)
      • 2GB ethernet ports
      • 200+ clients
      • 6.5 Mbps to 1300 Mbps (MCS0 - MCS9 NSS1/2/3, VHT 20/40/80)
      • 2.4 Ghz - Integrated 5 dBi Omni (Supports 3x3 MIMO with Spatial Diversity)
      • 5 Ghz - Integrated 5 dBi Omni (Supports 3x3 MIMO with Spatial Diversity)
    • UniFi AP-PRO (UAP-PRO)
      • 122m - 400ft
      • 300 Mbps (5ghz), 802.11 a/b/g/n
      • no ac but 5ghz, 802.3af (PoE)
      • 2GB ethernet ports
      • 200+ clients
    • UniFi AP-LR (UAP-LR)
      • 183m - 600ft
      • 802.11 b/g/n, no 5ghz
      • 100+ clients
    • UniFi AP (UAP)
      • 122m - 400ft
      • 802.11 b/g/n, no 5ghz
      • 100+ clients
  • Outdoor Models:
    • Similar offerings as above with only 3 models with one model dual band and ac all ranges at 600ft. The two others are single band one @ 2.4 and one at 5.
    • UniFi AP-AC Outdoor (UAP-AC Outdoor) PoE+ - 5ghz 1300mbit - 2.4 300mbit - No external antennas - Two gbit ethernet - 200+ clients
    • UniFi AP-Outdoor+ (UAP-Outdoor+) PoE - 2.4ghz - 300 Mbps - 802.11 b/g/n - ext antennas - multi lan rf yes - two ethernet ports - 100+ clients
    • UniFi AP-Outdoor 5G (UAP-Outdoor5) - 5ghz - 300 Mbps -802.11 a/n (no ac) NO POE?!?! - ext antennas - two ethernet ports - 100+ clients

Enterprise equipment with 4 hour rmas and support etc is not avail with UBIQUITTI. Fewer features. Talk about OSI level 2 sniffing because the guest networks are all layer 3.

  • poe:
  • The UniFi AP-PRO is compatible with an 802.3af compliant switch, while the UniFi AP‐AC is compatible with an 802.3at compliant switch.
    • The Pro or AC models are POE/POE+ complaint. Otherwise use the injectors (nasty!)
    • for those of you upset by the 24v pie then buy the pro model unifi AP or the new ac model both of those are 48v standard pie and work off a regular pie switch
  • ex:
    • We have our WiFi network setup using Unifi APs and it works great. As a Bank we have to guard our WiFi network very closely and while the UniFi gear could not do MAC whitelisting we did couple it with a (oh no here it is) POE Cisco switch that we do our MAC filtering on. Linked up to AD for RADIUS and a hidden SSID and we are about as secure as you can get. Usually if you look long enough and do enough homework you can figure out a way to get what you want without having to spend a bunch of money.
  • http://wlanpros2.project.ihelphosting.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/Wi-Fi%20Stress%20Test%20Report.pdf
  • http://devinator.postach.io/unseating-ubiquiti

UniFi Controller


  • What about the mega-APs like the Xirrus that have an array of multiple radios in a single housing? According to the Xirrus website their top-end unit has 16 radios, has a max bandwidth of 7.2 Gbps and supports 1,792 associated users! But, they will cost you...
  • Spiceworks:

Cisco offers a wide variety of products and services to support SMB to enterprise-class networks. We have different products you can choose from depending on your requirements and the features you need, thus the difference in pricing. Feature and application-wise, you have better options with Cisco. :)

If you are curious about the pricing of the different APs, you can check the information below.

For small networks, you can choose the Cisco SMB WAPs: http://www.cisco.com/cisco/web/solutions/small_business/products/wireless/index.html-tab-AccessPoints

For midsize networks (and cloud management) you can go with Cisco-Meraki: https://meraki.cisco.com/products/wireless

For enterprise and large network, you can choose the Aironet APs:


Long Range Other

Bridge Solution


  • Iron Pipe with flanges, para cord, stakes, pipe clamps, and couplers for sections.

Hardware and Stuff



MCS15 (130mbps?) = see 'my post'

  • Don't forget to turn off AirMax and use a 20 MHz channel width, or your campers won't be able to associate to the AP.

MCS stands for Modulation and Coding Scheme. The 802.11n standard defines a total of 77 MCS. Each MCS is a combination of a certain modulation (e.g., BPSK, QPSK, 64-QAM), coding rate (e.g., 1/2, 3/4), guard interval (800 or 400 ns), and number of spatial streams. Support for MCS 0-15 is mandatory for 802.11n APs and support for MCS 0-7 is mandatory for 802.11n clients.

Calculating Signal


  • Microcom...PRO - $189, CARRIER - $249
  • Streakwave...PRO - $145, CARRIER - $185
  • Amazon and eBay...Shireen DC 1021 (similar to PRO cable) - $155
  • Both PRO and CARRIER GRADE are rated for CAT 5E up 1 Gbps
    • PRO has only foil shielding
    • CARRIER has foil and wire mesh shielding, and a plastic anit- crosstalk divider.

My Post

Some mounting ideas

Just a flange and bent pipe for the side of a building.


  • 2x 19db panel antennas
  • 2x waterproof enclosures
  • 2x wrt54gl (250mw)
  • 2x POE injectors


Connectors for Dish

  • Antenna Female N
  • Cable Male N to Female N
  • USB Wireless Card antenna connector Outside Threads Male pin Inside
  • Antenna of wireless card femal in and threads in.

Fresnel Zone

1st Fresnel Zone Radius: 7 ft at 0.03 Miles (2 m at 0.05 Km)
60% No Obstacle Radius: 3 ft (1m)


Signal-to-noise ratio (often abbreviated SNR or S/N) is a measure used in science and engineering that compares the level of a desired signal to the level of background noise. It is defined as the ratio of signal power to the noise power, often expressed in decibels. A ratio higher than 1:1 (greater than 0 dB) indicates more signal than noise.

Wall Coupler


Wireless Power

http://witricity.com/products/prodigy/ http://hackaday.com/2011/01/14/theory-behind-evanescent-wave-coupling-aka-wireless-power/ http://www.instructables.com/id/Wireless-Power-Transmission-Over-Short-Distances-U/ http://hackaday.com/2011/04/01/transmitting-power-and-data-through-thick-metal-enclosures/

Custom Wireless Access Point